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pythonstartup

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# python-startup.py
# Author: Nathan Gray, based on interactive.py by Robin Friedrich and an
#           evil innate desire to customize things.
# E-Mail: [email protected]
#
# Version: 0.6
# site: www.n8gray.org/files/pythonstartup.py

# These modules are always nice to have in the namespace
import sys, os

##### Some settings you may want to change #####
# Define the editor used by the edit() function. Try to use the editor
# defined in the Unix environment, or default to vi if not set.
# (patch due to Stephan Fiedler)
#
# %(lineno)s gets replaced by the line number.  Ditto %(fname)s the filename
EDITOR = os.environ.get('EDITOR', 'emacs')
editorbase = EDITOR.split()[0]
if editorbase in ['nedit', 'nc', 'ncl', 'emacs', 'emacsclient', 'xemacs'] :
    # We know these editors supoprt a linenumber argument
    EDITOR = EDITOR + ' +%(lineno)s %(fname)s &'
elif editorbase in ['vi', 'vim', 'jed']:
    # Don't want to run vi in the background!
    # If your editor requires a terminal (e.g. joe) use this as a template
    EDITOR = 'xterm -e ' + EDITOR + ' +%(lineno)s %(fname)s &'
else:
    # Guess that the editor only supports the filename
    EDITOR = EDITOR + ' %(fname)s &'
del editorbase

# The place to store your command history between sessions
histfile=os.environ["HOME"] + "/python/.python-history"

# Functions automatically added to the builtins namespace so that you can
# use them in the debugger and other unusual environments
autobuiltins = ['edit', 'which', 'ls', 'cd', 'mv', 'cp', 'rm', 'help', 'rmdir',
                'ln', 'pwd', 'pushd', 'popd', 'env', 'mkdir']

##### Now set up the interactive features that I like #####

# Colorize the prompts if possible (This is probably non-portable muck)
# Thanks to Stephan Fiedler for the fix!
if os.environ[ 'TERM' ] in [ 'xterm', 'vt100' ]:
    pre = chr(1) + "\033[1;32m" + chr(2) # Turn the text green
    suf = chr(1) + "\033[0m" + chr(2) # Reset to normal
    sys.ps1 = pre + ">>>" + suf + " "
    sys.ps2 = pre + "..." + suf + " "
    del pre, suf
    try:
        # Set up colorized tracebacks
        # Make sure to do this *before* installing LazyPython
        import ultraTB
        sys.excepthook = ultraTB.ColorTB()
    except ImportError:
        pass

# LazyPython only works for Python versions 2.1 and above
try:
    # Try to use LazyPython
    from LazyPython import LazyPython
    sys.excepthook = LazyPython()
except ImportError:
    pass

# Pretty-print at the command prompt for more readable dicts and lists.
from pprint import pprint
import __builtin__
def myhook(value, show=pprint, bltin=__builtin__):
    if value is not None:
        bltin._ = value
        show(value)
sys.displayhook = myhook
del __builtin__

try:
    # Try to set up command history completion/saving/reloading
    import readline, atexit, rlcompleter
    readline.parse_and_bind('tab: complete')
    try:
        readline.read_history_file(histfile)
    except IOError:
        pass  # It doesn't exist yet.

    def savehist():
        try:
            global histfile
            readline.write_history_file(histfile)
        except:
            print 'Unable to save Python command history'
    atexit.register(savehist)
    del atexit
except ImportError:
    pass

##### Make reload work recursively #####
try:
    import __builtin__, deep_reload
    __builtin__.reload = deep_reload.reload
    del __builtin__, deep_reload
except ImportError:
    pass


# Make an "edit" command that sends you to the right file *and line number*
# to edit a module, class, method, or function!
# Note that this relies on my enhanced version of which().
def edit(object, editor=EDITOR):
    """Edit the source file from which a module, class, method, or function
    was imported.
    Usage:  >>> edit(mysteryObject)
    """

    if type(object) is type(""):
        fname = object; lineno = 1
        print editor % locals()
        os.system( editor % locals() )
        return

    ret = which(object)
    if not ret:
        print "Can't edit that!"
        return
    fname, lineno = ret
    if fname[-4:] == '.pyc' or fname[-4:] == '.pyo':
        fname = fname[:-1]
    print editor % locals()
    os.system( editor % locals() )


############################################################################
# Below this is Robin Friedrich's interactive.py with some edits to decrease
# namespace pollution and change the help functionality
# NG
#
# Also enhanced 'which' to return filename/lineno
# Patch from Stephan Fiedler to allow multiple args to ls variants
# NG 10/21/01  --  Corrected a bug in _glob
#
########################### interactive.py ###########################
#  """Functions for doing shellish things in Python interactive mode.
#
#     Meant to be imported at startup via environment:
#       setenv PYTHONSTARTUP $HOME/easy.py
#       or
#       export PYTHONSTARTUP=$HOME/easy.py
#
#     - Robin Friedrich
#  """
import shutil
import glob
import os
import types
try:
    from pydoc import help
except ImportError:
    def help(*objects):
        """Print doc strings for object(s).
        Usage:  >>> help(object, [obj2, objN])  (brackets mean [optional] argument)
        """
        if len(objects) == 0:
            help(help)
            return
        for obj in objects:
            try:
                print '****', obj.__name__ , '****'
                print obj.__doc__
            except AttributeError:
                print `obj`, 'has no __doc__ attribute'
                print


home = os.path.expandvars('$HOME')

def _glob(filenames):
    """Expand a filename or sequence of filenames with possible
    shell metacharacters to a list of valid filenames.
    Ex:  _glob(('*.py*',)) == ['able.py','baker.py','charlie.py']
    """
    if type(filenames) is types.StringType:
        return glob.glob(filenames)
    flist = []
    for filename in filenames:
        globbed = glob.glob(filename)
        if globbed:
            for file in globbed:
                flist.append(file)
        else:
            flist.append(filename)
    return flist

def _expandpath(d):
    """Convert a relative path to an absolute path.
    """
    return os.path.join(os.getcwd(), os.path.expandvars(d))

def _ls(options, *files):
    """
    _ls(options, ['fname', ...'])

    Lists the given filenames, or the current directory if none are
    given, with the given options, which should be a string like '-lF'.
    """
    if len(files) == 0 :
        args = os.curdir
    else :
        args = ' '.join(files)
    os.system('ls %s %s' % (options, args))

def ls(*files):
    """Same as 'ls -aF'
    Usage:  >>> ls(['dirname', ...])   (brackets mean [optional]
argument)
    """
    _ls('-aF', *files)

def ll(*files):
    """Same as 'ls -alF'
    Usage:  >>> ll(['dirname', ...])   (brackets mean [optional]
argument)
    """
    _ls('-alF', *files)

def lr(*files):
    """Recursive listing. same as 'ls -aRF'
    Usage:  >>> lr(['dirname', ...])   (brackets mean [optional]
argument)
    """
    _ls('-aRF', *files)

mkdir = os.mkdir

def rm(*args):
    """Delete a file or files.
    Usage:  >>> rm('file.c' [, 'file.h'])  (brackets mean [optional] argument)
    Alias: delete
    """
    filenames = _glob(args)
    for item in filenames:
        try:
            os.remove(item)
        except os.error, detail:
            print "%s: %s" % (detail[1], item)
delete = rm

def rmdir(directory):
    """Remove a directory.
    Usage:  >>> rmdir('dirname')
    If the directory isn't empty, can recursively delete all sub-files.
    """
    try:
        os.rmdir(directory)
    except os.error:
        #directory wasn't empty
        answer = raw_input(directory+" isn't empty. Delete anyway?[n] ")
        if answer and answer[0] in 'Yy':
            os.system('rm -rf %s' % directory)
            print directory + ' Deleted.'
        else:
            print directory + ' Unharmed.'

def mv(*args):
    """Move files within a filesystem.
    Usage:  >>> mv('file1', ['fileN',] 'fileordir')
    If two arguments - both must be files
    If more arguments - last argument must be a directory
    """
    filenames = _glob(args)
    nfilenames = len(filenames)
    if nfilenames < 2:
        print 'Need at least two arguments'
    elif nfilenames == 2:
        try:
            os.rename(filenames[0], filenames[1])
        except os.error, detail:
            print "%s: %s" % (detail[1], filenames[1])
    else:
        for filename in filenames[:-1]:
            try:
                dest = filenames[-1]+'/'+filename
                if not os.path.isdir(filenames[-1]):
                    print 'Last argument needs to be a directory'
                    return
                os.rename(filename, dest)
            except os.error, detail:
                print "%s: %s" % (detail[1], filename)

def cp(*args):
    """Copy files along with their mode bits.
    Usage:  >>> cp('file1', ['fileN',] 'fileordir')
    If two arguments - both must be files
    If more arguments - last argument must be a directory
    """
    filenames = _glob(args)
    nfilenames = len(filenames)
    if nfilenames < 2:
        print 'Need at least two arguments'
    elif nfilenames == 2:
        try:
            shutil.copy(filenames[0], filenames[1])
        except os.error, detail:
            print "%s: %s" % (detail[1], filenames[1])
    else:
        for filename in filenames[:-1]:
            try:
                dest = filenames[-1]+'/'+filename
                if not os.path.isdir(filenames[-1]):
                    print 'Last argument needs to be a directory'
                    return
                shutil.copy(filename, dest)
            except os.error, detail:
                print "%s: %s" % (detail[1], filename)

def cpr(src, dst):
    """Recursively copy a directory tree to a new location
    Usage:  >>> cpr('directory0', 'newdirectory')
    Symbolic links are copied as links not source files.
    """
    shutil.copytree(src, dst)

def ln(src, dst):
    """Create a symbolic link.
    Usage:  >>> ln('existingfile', 'newlink')
    """
    os.symlink(src, dst)

def lnh(src, dst):
    """Create a hard file system link.
    Usage:  >>> ln('existingfile', 'newlink')
    """
    os.link(src, dst)

def pwd():
    """Print current working directory path.
    Usage:  >>> pwd()
    """
    print os.getcwd()

cdlist = [home]
def cd(directory = -1):
    """Change directory. Environment variables are expanded.
    Usage:
    cd('rel/$work/dir') change to a directory relative to your own
    cd('/abs/path')     change to an absolute directory path
    cd()                list directories you've been in
    cd(int)             integer from cd() listing, jump to that directory
    """
    global cdlist
    if type(directory) is types.IntType:
        if directory in range(len(cdlist)):
            cd(cdlist[directory])
            return
        else:
            pprint(cdlist)
            return
    directory = _glob(directory)[0]
    if not os.path.isdir(directory):
        print `directory`+' is not a directory'
        return
    directory = _expandpath(directory)
    if directory not in cdlist:
        cdlist.append(directory)
    os.chdir(directory)

def env():
    """List environment variables.
    Usage:  >>> env()
    """
    #unfortunately environ is an instance not a dictionary
    envdict = {}
    for key, value in os.environ.items():
        envdict[key] = value
    pprint(envdict)

interactive_dir_stack = []
def pushd(directory=home):
    """Place the current dir on stack and change directory.
    Usage:  >>> pushd(['dirname'])   (brackets mean [optional] argument)
                pushd()  goes home.
    """
    global interactive_dir_stack
    interactive_dir_stack.append(os.getcwd())
    cd(directory)

def popd():
    """Change to directory popped off the top of the stack.
    Usage:  >>> popd()
    """
    global interactive_dir_stack
    try:
        cd(interactive_dir_stack[-1])
        print interactive_dir_stack[-1]
        del interactive_dir_stack[-1]
    except IndexError:
        print 'Stack is empty'

def syspath():
    """Print the Python path.
    Usage:  >>> syspath()
    """
    import sys
    pprint(sys.path)

def which(object):
    """Print the source file from which a module, class, function, or method
    was imported.

    Usage:    >>> which(mysteryObject)
    Returns:  Tuple with (file_name, line_number) of source file, or None if
              no source file exists
    Alias:    whence
    """
    object_type = type(object)
    if object_type is types.ModuleType:
        if hasattr(object, '__file__'):
            print 'Module from', object.__file__
            return (object.__file__, 1)
        else:
            print 'Built-in module.'
    elif object_type is types.ClassType:
        if object.__module__ == '__main__':
            print 'Built-in class or class loaded from $PYTHONSTARTUP'
        else:
            print 'Class', object.__name__, 'from', \
                    sys.modules[object.__module__].__file__
            # Send you to the first line of the __init__ method
            return (sys.modules[object.__module__].__file__,
                    object.__init__.im_func.func_code.co_firstlineno)
    elif object_type in (types.BuiltinFunctionType, types.BuiltinMethodType):
        print "Built-in or extension function/method."
    elif object_type is types.FunctionType:
        print 'Function from', object.func_code.co_filename
        return (object.func_code.co_filename, object.func_code.co_firstlineno)
    elif object_type is types.MethodType:
        print 'Method of class', object.im_class.__name__, 'from',
        fname = sys.modules[object.im_class.__module__].__file__
        print fname
        return (fname, object.im_func.func_code.co_firstlineno)
    else:
        print "argument is not a module or function."
    return None
whence = which

# Automatically add some convenience functions to __builtin__
import __builtin__
for n in autobuiltins:
    exec '__builtin__.__dict__["%s"] = %s' % (n,n) in globals()
https://snipt.net/embed/f89a5a717d933cb90e34fd37f0e0ced8/
/raw/f89a5a717d933cb90e34fd37f0e0ced8/
f89a5a717d933cb90e34fd37f0e0ced8
python
Python
449
2019-06-26T14:10:01
True
False
False
/api/public/snipt/9318/
pythonstartup
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href="#L-442">442</a> <a href="#L-443">443</a> <a href="#L-444">444</a> <a href="#L-445">445</a> <a href="#L-446">446</a> <a href="#L-447">447</a></pre></div></td><td class="code"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span id="L-1"><a name="L-1"></a><span class="c1"># python-startup.py</span> </span><span id="L-2"><a name="L-2"></a><span class="c1"># Author: Nathan Gray, based on interactive.py by Robin Friedrich and an</span> </span><span id="L-3"><a name="L-3"></a><span class="c1"># evil innate desire to customize things.</span> </span><span id="L-4"><a name="L-4"></a><span class="c1"># E-Mail: [email protected]</span> </span><span id="L-5"><a name="L-5"></a><span class="c1">#</span> </span><span id="L-6"><a name="L-6"></a><span class="c1"># Version: 0.6</span> </span><span id="L-7"><a name="L-7"></a><span class="c1"># site: www.n8gray.org/files/pythonstartup.py</span> </span><span id="L-8"><a name="L-8"></a> </span><span id="L-9"><a name="L-9"></a><span class="c1"># These modules are always nice to have in the namespace</span> </span><span id="L-10"><a name="L-10"></a><span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">sys</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">os</span> </span><span id="L-11"><a name="L-11"></a> </span><span id="L-12"><a name="L-12"></a><span class="c1">##### Some settings you may want to change #####</span> </span><span id="L-13"><a name="L-13"></a><span class="c1"># Define the editor used by the edit() function. Try to use the editor</span> </span><span id="L-14"><a name="L-14"></a><span class="c1"># defined in the Unix environment, or default to vi if not set.</span> </span><span id="L-15"><a name="L-15"></a><span class="c1"># (patch due to Stephan Fiedler)</span> </span><span id="L-16"><a name="L-16"></a><span class="c1">#</span> </span><span id="L-17"><a name="L-17"></a><span class="c1"># %(lineno)s gets replaced by the line number. Ditto %(fname)s the filename</span> </span><span id="L-18"><a name="L-18"></a><span class="n">EDITOR</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">environ</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">get</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;EDITOR&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;emacs&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-19"><a name="L-19"></a><span class="n">editorbase</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">EDITOR</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">split</span><span class="p">()[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">]</span> </span><span id="L-20"><a name="L-20"></a><span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">editorbase</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;nedit&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;nc&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;ncl&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;emacs&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;emacsclient&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;xemacs&#39;</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-21"><a name="L-21"></a> <span class="c1"># We know these editors supoprt a linenumber argument</span> </span><span id="L-22"><a name="L-22"></a> <span class="n">EDITOR</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">EDITOR</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s1">&#39; +</span><span class="si">%(lineno)s</span><span class="s1"> </span><span class="si">%(fname)s</span><span class="s1"> &amp;&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-23"><a name="L-23"></a><span class="k">elif</span> <span class="n">editorbase</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;vi&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;vim&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;jed&#39;</span><span class="p">]:</span> </span><span id="L-24"><a name="L-24"></a> <span class="c1"># Don&#39;t want to run vi in the background!</span> </span><span id="L-25"><a name="L-25"></a> <span class="c1"># If your editor requires a terminal (e.g. joe) use this as a template</span> </span><span id="L-26"><a name="L-26"></a> <span class="n">EDITOR</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s1">&#39;xterm -e &#39;</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="n">EDITOR</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s1">&#39; +</span><span class="si">%(lineno)s</span><span class="s1"> </span><span class="si">%(fname)s</span><span class="s1"> &amp;&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-27"><a name="L-27"></a><span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-28"><a name="L-28"></a> <span class="c1"># Guess that the editor only supports the filename</span> </span><span id="L-29"><a name="L-29"></a> <span class="n">EDITOR</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">EDITOR</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s1">&#39; </span><span class="si">%(fname)s</span><span class="s1"> &amp;&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-30"><a name="L-30"></a><span class="k">del</span> <span class="n">editorbase</span> </span><span id="L-31"><a name="L-31"></a> </span><span id="L-32"><a name="L-32"></a><span class="c1"># The place to store your command history between sessions</span> </span><span id="L-33"><a name="L-33"></a><span class="n">histfile</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">environ</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s2">&quot;HOME&quot;</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s2">&quot;/python/.python-history&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-34"><a name="L-34"></a> </span><span id="L-35"><a name="L-35"></a><span class="c1"># Functions automatically added to the builtins namespace so that you can</span> </span><span id="L-36"><a name="L-36"></a><span class="c1"># use them in the debugger and other unusual environments</span> </span><span id="L-37"><a name="L-37"></a><span class="n">autobuiltins</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;edit&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;which&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;ls&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;cd&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;mv&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;cp&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;rm&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;help&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;rmdir&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> </span><span id="L-38"><a name="L-38"></a> <span class="s1">&#39;ln&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;pwd&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;pushd&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;popd&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;env&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;mkdir&#39;</span><span class="p">]</span> </span><span id="L-39"><a name="L-39"></a> </span><span id="L-40"><a name="L-40"></a><span class="c1">##### Now set up the interactive features that I like #####</span> </span><span id="L-41"><a name="L-41"></a> </span><span id="L-42"><a name="L-42"></a><span class="c1"># Colorize the prompts if possible (This is probably non-portable muck)</span> </span><span id="L-43"><a name="L-43"></a><span class="c1"># Thanks to Stephan Fiedler for the fix!</span> </span><span id="L-44"><a name="L-44"></a><span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">environ</span><span class="p">[</span> <span class="s1">&#39;TERM&#39;</span> <span class="p">]</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="p">[</span> <span class="s1">&#39;xterm&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;vt100&#39;</span> <span class="p">]:</span> </span><span id="L-45"><a name="L-45"></a> <span class="n">pre</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">chr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s2">&quot;</span><span class="se">\033</span><span class="s2">[1;32m&quot;</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="nb">chr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="c1"># Turn the text green</span> </span><span id="L-46"><a name="L-46"></a> <span class="n">suf</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">chr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s2">&quot;</span><span class="se">\033</span><span class="s2">[0m&quot;</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="nb">chr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="c1"># Reset to normal</span> </span><span id="L-47"><a name="L-47"></a> <span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ps1</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">pre</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s2">&quot;&gt;&gt;&gt;&quot;</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="n">suf</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s2">&quot; &quot;</span> </span><span id="L-48"><a name="L-48"></a> <span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ps2</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">pre</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s2">&quot;...&quot;</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="n">suf</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s2">&quot; &quot;</span> </span><span id="L-49"><a name="L-49"></a> <span class="k">del</span> <span class="n">pre</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">suf</span> </span><span id="L-50"><a name="L-50"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-51"><a name="L-51"></a> <span class="c1"># Set up colorized tracebacks</span> </span><span id="L-52"><a name="L-52"></a> <span class="c1"># Make sure to do this *before* installing LazyPython</span> </span><span id="L-53"><a name="L-53"></a> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">ultraTB</span> </span><span id="L-54"><a name="L-54"></a> <span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">excepthook</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ultraTB</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ColorTB</span><span class="p">()</span> </span><span id="L-55"><a name="L-55"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="ne">ImportError</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-56"><a name="L-56"></a> <span class="k">pass</span> </span><span id="L-57"><a name="L-57"></a> </span><span id="L-58"><a name="L-58"></a><span class="c1"># LazyPython only works for Python versions 2.1 and above</span> </span><span id="L-59"><a name="L-59"></a><span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-60"><a name="L-60"></a> <span class="c1"># Try to use LazyPython</span> </span><span id="L-61"><a name="L-61"></a> <span class="kn">from</span> <span class="nn">LazyPython</span> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="n">LazyPython</span> </span><span id="L-62"><a name="L-62"></a> <span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">excepthook</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">LazyPython</span><span class="p">()</span> </span><span id="L-63"><a name="L-63"></a><span class="k">except</span> <span class="ne">ImportError</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-64"><a name="L-64"></a> <span class="k">pass</span> </span><span id="L-65"><a name="L-65"></a> </span><span id="L-66"><a name="L-66"></a><span class="c1"># Pretty-print at the command prompt for more readable dicts and lists.</span> </span><span id="L-67"><a name="L-67"></a><span class="kn">from</span> <span class="nn">pprint</span> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="n">pprint</span> </span><span id="L-68"><a name="L-68"></a><span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">__builtin__</span> </span><span id="L-69"><a name="L-69"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">myhook</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">show</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">pprint</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">bltin</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">__builtin__</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-70"><a name="L-70"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">value</span> <span class="ow">is</span> <span class="ow">not</span> <span class="bp">None</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-71"><a name="L-71"></a> <span class="n">bltin</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">_</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">value</span> </span><span id="L-72"><a name="L-72"></a> <span class="n">show</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-73"><a name="L-73"></a><span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">displayhook</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">myhook</span> </span><span id="L-74"><a name="L-74"></a><span class="k">del</span> <span class="n">__builtin__</span> </span><span id="L-75"><a name="L-75"></a> </span><span id="L-76"><a name="L-76"></a><span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-77"><a name="L-77"></a> <span class="c1"># Try to set up command history completion/saving/reloading</span> </span><span id="L-78"><a name="L-78"></a> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">readline</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">atexit</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">rlcompleter</span> </span><span id="L-79"><a name="L-79"></a> <span class="n">readline</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">parse_and_bind</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;tab: complete&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-80"><a name="L-80"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-81"><a name="L-81"></a> <span class="n">readline</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">read_history_file</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">histfile</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-82"><a name="L-82"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="ne">IOError</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-83"><a name="L-83"></a> <span class="k">pass</span> <span class="c1"># It doesn&#39;t exist yet.</span> </span><span id="L-84"><a name="L-84"></a> </span><span id="L-85"><a name="L-85"></a> <span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">savehist</span><span class="p">():</span> </span><span id="L-86"><a name="L-86"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-87"><a name="L-87"></a> <span class="k">global</span> <span class="n">histfile</span> </span><span id="L-88"><a name="L-88"></a> <span class="n">readline</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">write_history_file</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">histfile</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-89"><a name="L-89"></a> <span class="k">except</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-90"><a name="L-90"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Unable to save Python command history&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-91"><a name="L-91"></a> <span class="n">atexit</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">register</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">savehist</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-92"><a name="L-92"></a> <span class="k">del</span> <span class="n">atexit</span> </span><span id="L-93"><a name="L-93"></a><span class="k">except</span> <span class="ne">ImportError</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-94"><a name="L-94"></a> <span class="k">pass</span> </span><span id="L-95"><a name="L-95"></a> </span><span id="L-96"><a name="L-96"></a><span class="c1">##### Make reload work recursively #####</span> </span><span id="L-97"><a name="L-97"></a><span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-98"><a name="L-98"></a> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">__builtin__</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nn">deep_reload</span> </span><span id="L-99"><a name="L-99"></a> <span class="n">__builtin__</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">reload</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">deep_reload</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">reload</span> </span><span id="L-100"><a name="L-100"></a> <span class="k">del</span> <span class="n">__builtin__</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">deep_reload</span> </span><span id="L-101"><a name="L-101"></a><span class="k">except</span> <span class="ne">ImportError</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-102"><a name="L-102"></a> <span class="k">pass</span> </span><span id="L-103"><a name="L-103"></a> </span><span id="L-104"><a name="L-104"></a> </span><span id="L-105"><a name="L-105"></a><span class="c1"># Make an &quot;edit&quot; command that sends you to the right file *and line number*</span> </span><span id="L-106"><a name="L-106"></a><span class="c1"># to edit a module, class, method, or function!</span> </span><span id="L-107"><a name="L-107"></a><span class="c1"># Note that this relies on my enhanced version of which().</span> </span><span id="L-108"><a name="L-108"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">edit</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">editor</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">EDITOR</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-109"><a name="L-109"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Edit the source file from which a module, class, method, or function</span> </span><span id="L-110"><a name="L-110"></a><span class="sd"> was imported.</span> </span><span id="L-111"><a name="L-111"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; edit(mysteryObject)</span> </span><span id="L-112"><a name="L-112"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-113"><a name="L-113"></a> </span><span id="L-114"><a name="L-114"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nb">type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="ow">is</span> <span class="nb">type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s2">&quot;&quot;</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-115"><a name="L-115"></a> <span class="n">fname</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="n">lineno</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">1</span> </span><span id="L-116"><a name="L-116"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="n">editor</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="nb">locals</span><span class="p">()</span> </span><span id="L-117"><a name="L-117"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">system</span><span class="p">(</span> <span class="n">editor</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="nb">locals</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-118"><a name="L-118"></a> <span class="k">return</span> </span><span id="L-119"><a name="L-119"></a> </span><span id="L-120"><a name="L-120"></a> <span class="n">ret</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">which</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-121"><a name="L-121"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="ow">not</span> <span class="n">ret</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-122"><a name="L-122"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s2">&quot;Can&#39;t edit that!&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-123"><a name="L-123"></a> <span class="k">return</span> </span><span id="L-124"><a name="L-124"></a> <span class="n">fname</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">lineno</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ret</span> </span><span id="L-125"><a name="L-125"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">fname</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">:]</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="s1">&#39;.pyc&#39;</span> <span class="ow">or</span> <span class="n">fname</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">4</span><span class="p">:]</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="s1">&#39;.pyo&#39;</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-126"><a name="L-126"></a> <span class="n">fname</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">fname</span><span class="p">[:</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]</span> </span><span id="L-127"><a name="L-127"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="n">editor</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="nb">locals</span><span class="p">()</span> </span><span id="L-128"><a name="L-128"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">system</span><span class="p">(</span> <span class="n">editor</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="nb">locals</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-129"><a name="L-129"></a> </span><span id="L-130"><a name="L-130"></a> </span><span id="L-131"><a name="L-131"></a><span class="c1">############################################################################</span> </span><span id="L-132"><a name="L-132"></a><span class="c1"># Below this is Robin Friedrich&#39;s interactive.py with some edits to decrease</span> </span><span id="L-133"><a name="L-133"></a><span class="c1"># namespace pollution and change the help functionality</span> </span><span id="L-134"><a name="L-134"></a><span class="c1"># NG</span> </span><span id="L-135"><a name="L-135"></a><span class="c1">#</span> </span><span id="L-136"><a name="L-136"></a><span class="c1"># Also enhanced &#39;which&#39; to return filename/lineno</span> </span><span id="L-137"><a name="L-137"></a><span class="c1"># Patch from Stephan Fiedler to allow multiple args to ls variants</span> </span><span id="L-138"><a name="L-138"></a><span class="c1"># NG 10/21/01 -- Corrected a bug in _glob</span> </span><span id="L-139"><a name="L-139"></a><span class="c1">#</span> </span><span id="L-140"><a name="L-140"></a><span class="c1">########################### interactive.py ###########################</span> </span><span id="L-141"><a name="L-141"></a><span class="c1"># &quot;&quot;&quot;Functions for doing shellish things in Python interactive mode.</span> </span><span id="L-142"><a name="L-142"></a><span class="c1">#</span> </span><span id="L-143"><a name="L-143"></a><span class="c1"># Meant to be imported at startup via environment:</span> </span><span id="L-144"><a name="L-144"></a><span class="c1"># setenv PYTHONSTARTUP $HOME/easy.py</span> </span><span id="L-145"><a name="L-145"></a><span class="c1"># or</span> </span><span id="L-146"><a name="L-146"></a><span class="c1"># export PYTHONSTARTUP=$HOME/easy.py</span> </span><span id="L-147"><a name="L-147"></a><span class="c1">#</span> </span><span id="L-148"><a name="L-148"></a><span class="c1"># - Robin Friedrich</span> </span><span id="L-149"><a name="L-149"></a><span class="c1"># &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-150"><a name="L-150"></a><span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">shutil</span> </span><span id="L-151"><a name="L-151"></a><span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">glob</span> </span><span id="L-152"><a name="L-152"></a><span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">os</span> </span><span id="L-153"><a name="L-153"></a><span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">types</span> </span><span id="L-154"><a name="L-154"></a><span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-155"><a name="L-155"></a> <span class="kn">from</span> <span class="nn">pydoc</span> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="n">help</span> </span><span id="L-156"><a name="L-156"></a><span class="k">except</span> <span class="ne">ImportError</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-157"><a name="L-157"></a> <span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">help</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">objects</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-158"><a name="L-158"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Print doc strings for object(s).</span> </span><span id="L-159"><a name="L-159"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; help(object, [obj2, objN]) (brackets mean [optional] argument)</span> </span><span id="L-160"><a name="L-160"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-161"><a name="L-161"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nb">len</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">objects</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-162"><a name="L-162"></a> <span class="n">help</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">help</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-163"><a name="L-163"></a> <span class="k">return</span> </span><span id="L-164"><a name="L-164"></a> <span class="k">for</span> <span class="n">obj</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">objects</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-165"><a name="L-165"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-166"><a name="L-166"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;****&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">obj</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__name__</span> <span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;****&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-167"><a name="L-167"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="n">obj</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__doc__</span> </span><span id="L-168"><a name="L-168"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="ne">AttributeError</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-169"><a name="L-169"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="sb">`obj`</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;has no __doc__ attribute&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-170"><a name="L-170"></a> <span class="k">print</span> </span><span id="L-171"><a name="L-171"></a> </span><span id="L-172"><a name="L-172"></a> </span><span id="L-173"><a name="L-173"></a><span class="n">home</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">path</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expandvars</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;$HOME&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-174"><a name="L-174"></a> </span><span id="L-175"><a name="L-175"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">_glob</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-176"><a name="L-176"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Expand a filename or sequence of filenames with possible</span> </span><span id="L-177"><a name="L-177"></a><span class="sd"> shell metacharacters to a list of valid filenames.</span> </span><span id="L-178"><a name="L-178"></a><span class="sd"> Ex: _glob((&#39;*.py*&#39;,)) == [&#39;able.py&#39;,&#39;baker.py&#39;,&#39;charlie.py&#39;]</span> </span><span id="L-179"><a name="L-179"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-180"><a name="L-180"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nb">type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="ow">is</span> <span class="n">types</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">StringType</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-181"><a name="L-181"></a> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">glob</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">glob</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-182"><a name="L-182"></a> <span class="n">flist</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">[]</span> </span><span id="L-183"><a name="L-183"></a> <span class="k">for</span> <span class="n">filename</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-184"><a name="L-184"></a> <span class="n">globbed</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">glob</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">glob</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filename</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-185"><a name="L-185"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">globbed</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-186"><a name="L-186"></a> <span class="k">for</span> <span class="nb">file</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">globbed</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-187"><a name="L-187"></a> <span class="n">flist</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">append</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">file</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-188"><a name="L-188"></a> <span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-189"><a name="L-189"></a> <span class="n">flist</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">append</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filename</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-190"><a name="L-190"></a> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">flist</span> </span><span id="L-191"><a name="L-191"></a> </span><span id="L-192"><a name="L-192"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">_expandpath</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">d</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-193"><a name="L-193"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Convert a relative path to an absolute path.</span> </span><span id="L-194"><a name="L-194"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-195"><a name="L-195"></a> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">path</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">join</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">getcwd</span><span class="p">(),</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">path</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">expandvars</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">d</span><span class="p">))</span> </span><span id="L-196"><a name="L-196"></a> </span><span id="L-197"><a name="L-197"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">_ls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">options</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-198"><a name="L-198"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-199"><a name="L-199"></a><span class="sd"> _ls(options, [&#39;fname&#39;, ...&#39;])</span> </span><span id="L-200"><a name="L-200"></a> </span><span id="L-201"><a name="L-201"></a><span class="sd"> Lists the given filenames, or the current directory if none are</span> </span><span id="L-202"><a name="L-202"></a><span class="sd"> given, with the given options, which should be a string like &#39;-lF&#39;.</span> </span><span id="L-203"><a name="L-203"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-204"><a name="L-204"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nb">len</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">0</span> <span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-205"><a name="L-205"></a> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">curdir</span> </span><span id="L-206"><a name="L-206"></a> <span class="k">else</span> <span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-207"><a name="L-207"></a> <span class="n">args</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s1">&#39; &#39;</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">join</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-208"><a name="L-208"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">system</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;ls </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s1"> </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s1">&#39;</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">options</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">args</span><span class="p">))</span> </span><span id="L-209"><a name="L-209"></a> </span><span id="L-210"><a name="L-210"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">ls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-211"><a name="L-211"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Same as &#39;ls -aF&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-212"><a name="L-212"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; ls([&#39;dirname&#39;, ...]) (brackets mean [optional]</span> </span><span id="L-213"><a name="L-213"></a><span class="sd">argument)</span> </span><span id="L-214"><a name="L-214"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-215"><a name="L-215"></a> <span class="n">_ls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;-aF&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-216"><a name="L-216"></a> </span><span id="L-217"><a name="L-217"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">ll</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-218"><a name="L-218"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Same as &#39;ls -alF&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-219"><a name="L-219"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; ll([&#39;dirname&#39;, ...]) (brackets mean [optional]</span> </span><span id="L-220"><a name="L-220"></a><span class="sd">argument)</span> </span><span id="L-221"><a name="L-221"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-222"><a name="L-222"></a> <span class="n">_ls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;-alF&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-223"><a name="L-223"></a> </span><span id="L-224"><a name="L-224"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">lr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-225"><a name="L-225"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Recursive listing. same as &#39;ls -aRF&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-226"><a name="L-226"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; lr([&#39;dirname&#39;, ...]) (brackets mean [optional]</span> </span><span id="L-227"><a name="L-227"></a><span class="sd">argument)</span> </span><span id="L-228"><a name="L-228"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-229"><a name="L-229"></a> <span class="n">_ls</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;-aRF&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="o">*</span><span class="n">files</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-230"><a name="L-230"></a> </span><span id="L-231"><a name="L-231"></a><span class="n">mkdir</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">mkdir</span> </span><span id="L-232"><a name="L-232"></a> </span><span id="L-233"><a name="L-233"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">rm</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">args</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-234"><a name="L-234"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Delete a file or files.</span> </span><span id="L-235"><a name="L-235"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; rm(&#39;file.c&#39; [, &#39;file.h&#39;]) (brackets mean [optional] argument)</span> </span><span id="L-236"><a name="L-236"></a><span class="sd"> Alias: delete</span> </span><span id="L-237"><a name="L-237"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-238"><a name="L-238"></a> <span class="n">filenames</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">_glob</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">args</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-239"><a name="L-239"></a> <span class="k">for</span> <span class="n">item</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-240"><a name="L-240"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-241"><a name="L-241"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">remove</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">item</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-242"><a name="L-242"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-243"><a name="L-243"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s2">&quot;</span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">: </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">&quot;</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">item</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-244"><a name="L-244"></a><span class="n">delete</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">rm</span> </span><span id="L-245"><a name="L-245"></a> </span><span id="L-246"><a name="L-246"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">rmdir</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-247"><a name="L-247"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Remove a directory.</span> </span><span id="L-248"><a name="L-248"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; rmdir(&#39;dirname&#39;)</span> </span><span id="L-249"><a name="L-249"></a><span class="sd"> If the directory isn&#39;t empty, can recursively delete all sub-files.</span> </span><span id="L-250"><a name="L-250"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-251"><a name="L-251"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-252"><a name="L-252"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">rmdir</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-253"><a name="L-253"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-254"><a name="L-254"></a> <span class="c1">#directory wasn&#39;t empty</span> </span><span id="L-255"><a name="L-255"></a> <span class="n">answer</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">raw_input</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="o">+</span><span class="s2">&quot; isn&#39;t empty. Delete anyway?[n] &quot;</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-256"><a name="L-256"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">answer</span> <span class="ow">and</span> <span class="n">answer</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Yy&#39;</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-257"><a name="L-257"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">system</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;rm -rf </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s1">&#39;</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-258"><a name="L-258"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="n">directory</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s1">&#39; Deleted.&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-259"><a name="L-259"></a> <span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-260"><a name="L-260"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="n">directory</span> <span class="o">+</span> <span class="s1">&#39; Unharmed.&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-261"><a name="L-261"></a> </span><span id="L-262"><a name="L-262"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">mv</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">args</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-263"><a name="L-263"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Move files within a filesystem.</span> </span><span id="L-264"><a name="L-264"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; mv(&#39;file1&#39;, [&#39;fileN&#39;,] &#39;fileordir&#39;)</span> </span><span id="L-265"><a name="L-265"></a><span class="sd"> If two arguments - both must be files</span> </span><span id="L-266"><a name="L-266"></a><span class="sd"> If more arguments - last argument must be a directory</span> </span><span id="L-267"><a name="L-267"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-268"><a name="L-268"></a> <span class="n">filenames</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">_glob</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">args</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-269"><a name="L-269"></a> <span class="n">nfilenames</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">len</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-270"><a name="L-270"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">nfilenames</span> <span class="o">&lt;</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-271"><a name="L-271"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Need at least two arguments&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-272"><a name="L-272"></a> <span class="k">elif</span> <span class="n">nfilenames</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-273"><a name="L-273"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-274"><a name="L-274"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">rename</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">])</span> </span><span id="L-275"><a name="L-275"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-276"><a name="L-276"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s2">&quot;</span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">: </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">&quot;</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">])</span> </span><span id="L-277"><a name="L-277"></a> <span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-278"><a name="L-278"></a> <span class="k">for</span> <span class="n">filename</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[:</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]:</span> </span><span id="L-279"><a name="L-279"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-280"><a name="L-280"></a> <span class="n">dest</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]</span><span class="o">+</span><span class="s1">&#39;/&#39;</span><span class="o">+</span><span class="n">filename</span> </span><span id="L-281"><a name="L-281"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="ow">not</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">path</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">isdir</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]):</span> </span><span id="L-282"><a name="L-282"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Last argument needs to be a directory&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-283"><a name="L-283"></a> <span class="k">return</span> </span><span id="L-284"><a name="L-284"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">rename</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filename</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dest</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-285"><a name="L-285"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-286"><a name="L-286"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s2">&quot;</span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">: </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">&quot;</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">filename</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-287"><a name="L-287"></a> </span><span id="L-288"><a name="L-288"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">cp</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="o">*</span><span class="n">args</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-289"><a name="L-289"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Copy files along with their mode bits.</span> </span><span id="L-290"><a name="L-290"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; cp(&#39;file1&#39;, [&#39;fileN&#39;,] &#39;fileordir&#39;)</span> </span><span id="L-291"><a name="L-291"></a><span class="sd"> If two arguments - both must be files</span> </span><span id="L-292"><a name="L-292"></a><span class="sd"> If more arguments - last argument must be a directory</span> </span><span id="L-293"><a name="L-293"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-294"><a name="L-294"></a> <span class="n">filenames</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">_glob</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">args</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-295"><a name="L-295"></a> <span class="n">nfilenames</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">len</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-296"><a name="L-296"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">nfilenames</span> <span class="o">&lt;</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-297"><a name="L-297"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Need at least two arguments&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-298"><a name="L-298"></a> <span class="k">elif</span> <span class="n">nfilenames</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-299"><a name="L-299"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-300"><a name="L-300"></a> <span class="n">shutil</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">copy</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">])</span> </span><span id="L-301"><a name="L-301"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-302"><a name="L-302"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s2">&quot;</span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">: </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">&quot;</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">])</span> </span><span id="L-303"><a name="L-303"></a> <span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-304"><a name="L-304"></a> <span class="k">for</span> <span class="n">filename</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[:</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]:</span> </span><span id="L-305"><a name="L-305"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-306"><a name="L-306"></a> <span class="n">dest</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]</span><span class="o">+</span><span class="s1">&#39;/&#39;</span><span class="o">+</span><span class="n">filename</span> </span><span id="L-307"><a name="L-307"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="ow">not</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">path</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">isdir</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filenames</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]):</span> </span><span id="L-308"><a name="L-308"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Last argument needs to be a directory&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-309"><a name="L-309"></a> <span class="k">return</span> </span><span id="L-310"><a name="L-310"></a> <span class="n">shutil</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">copy</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">filename</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dest</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-311"><a name="L-311"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">error</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-312"><a name="L-312"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s2">&quot;</span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">: </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s2">&quot;</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">detail</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">],</span> <span class="n">filename</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-313"><a name="L-313"></a> </span><span id="L-314"><a name="L-314"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">cpr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">src</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dst</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-315"><a name="L-315"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Recursively copy a directory tree to a new location</span> </span><span id="L-316"><a name="L-316"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; cpr(&#39;directory0&#39;, &#39;newdirectory&#39;)</span> </span><span id="L-317"><a name="L-317"></a><span class="sd"> Symbolic links are copied as links not source files.</span> </span><span id="L-318"><a name="L-318"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-319"><a name="L-319"></a> <span class="n">shutil</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">copytree</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">src</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dst</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-320"><a name="L-320"></a> </span><span id="L-321"><a name="L-321"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">ln</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">src</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dst</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-322"><a name="L-322"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Create a symbolic link.</span> </span><span id="L-323"><a name="L-323"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; ln(&#39;existingfile&#39;, &#39;newlink&#39;)</span> </span><span id="L-324"><a name="L-324"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-325"><a name="L-325"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">symlink</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">src</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dst</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-326"><a name="L-326"></a> </span><span id="L-327"><a name="L-327"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">lnh</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">src</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dst</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-328"><a name="L-328"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Create a hard file system link.</span> </span><span id="L-329"><a name="L-329"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; ln(&#39;existingfile&#39;, &#39;newlink&#39;)</span> </span><span id="L-330"><a name="L-330"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-331"><a name="L-331"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">link</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">src</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dst</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-332"><a name="L-332"></a> </span><span id="L-333"><a name="L-333"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">pwd</span><span class="p">():</span> </span><span id="L-334"><a name="L-334"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Print current working directory path.</span> </span><span id="L-335"><a name="L-335"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; pwd()</span> </span><span id="L-336"><a name="L-336"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-337"><a name="L-337"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">getcwd</span><span class="p">()</span> </span><span id="L-338"><a name="L-338"></a> </span><span id="L-339"><a name="L-339"></a><span class="n">cdlist</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">[</span><span class="n">home</span><span class="p">]</span> </span><span id="L-340"><a name="L-340"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">cd</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-341"><a name="L-341"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Change directory. Environment variables are expanded.</span> </span><span id="L-342"><a name="L-342"></a><span class="sd"> Usage:</span> </span><span id="L-343"><a name="L-343"></a><span class="sd"> cd(&#39;rel/$work/dir&#39;) change to a directory relative to your own</span> </span><span id="L-344"><a name="L-344"></a><span class="sd"> cd(&#39;/abs/path&#39;) change to an absolute directory path</span> </span><span id="L-345"><a name="L-345"></a><span class="sd"> cd() list directories you&#39;ve been in</span> </span><span id="L-346"><a name="L-346"></a><span class="sd"> cd(int) integer from cd() listing, jump to that directory</span> </span><span id="L-347"><a name="L-347"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-348"><a name="L-348"></a> <span class="k">global</span> <span class="n">cdlist</span> </span><span id="L-349"><a name="L-349"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nb">type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="ow">is</span> <span class="n">types</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">IntType</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-350"><a name="L-350"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">directory</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="nb">range</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">len</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">cdlist</span><span class="p">)):</span> </span><span id="L-351"><a name="L-351"></a> <span class="n">cd</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">cdlist</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">])</span> </span><span id="L-352"><a name="L-352"></a> <span class="k">return</span> </span><span id="L-353"><a name="L-353"></a> <span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-354"><a name="L-354"></a> <span class="n">pprint</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">cdlist</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-355"><a name="L-355"></a> <span class="k">return</span> </span><span id="L-356"><a name="L-356"></a> <span class="n">directory</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">_glob</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">)[</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">]</span> </span><span id="L-357"><a name="L-357"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="ow">not</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">path</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">isdir</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-358"><a name="L-358"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="sb">`directory`</span><span class="o">+</span><span class="s1">&#39; is not a directory&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-359"><a name="L-359"></a> <span class="k">return</span> </span><span id="L-360"><a name="L-360"></a> <span class="n">directory</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">_expandpath</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-361"><a name="L-361"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">directory</span> <span class="ow">not</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">cdlist</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-362"><a name="L-362"></a> <span class="n">cdlist</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">append</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-363"><a name="L-363"></a> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">chdir</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-364"><a name="L-364"></a> </span><span id="L-365"><a name="L-365"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">env</span><span class="p">():</span> </span><span id="L-366"><a name="L-366"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;List environment variables.</span> </span><span id="L-367"><a name="L-367"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; env()</span> </span><span id="L-368"><a name="L-368"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-369"><a name="L-369"></a> <span class="c1">#unfortunately environ is an instance not a dictionary</span> </span><span id="L-370"><a name="L-370"></a> <span class="n">envdict</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">{}</span> </span><span id="L-371"><a name="L-371"></a> <span class="k">for</span> <span class="n">key</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">value</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">environ</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">items</span><span class="p">():</span> </span><span id="L-372"><a name="L-372"></a> <span class="n">envdict</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">value</span> </span><span id="L-373"><a name="L-373"></a> <span class="n">pprint</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">envdict</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-374"><a name="L-374"></a> </span><span id="L-375"><a name="L-375"></a><span class="n">interactive_dir_stack</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="p">[]</span> </span><span id="L-376"><a name="L-376"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">pushd</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="n">home</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-377"><a name="L-377"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Place the current dir on stack and change directory.</span> </span><span id="L-378"><a name="L-378"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; pushd([&#39;dirname&#39;]) (brackets mean [optional] argument)</span> </span><span id="L-379"><a name="L-379"></a><span class="sd"> pushd() goes home.</span> </span><span id="L-380"><a name="L-380"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-381"><a name="L-381"></a> <span class="k">global</span> <span class="n">interactive_dir_stack</span> </span><span id="L-382"><a name="L-382"></a> <span class="n">interactive_dir_stack</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">append</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">os</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">getcwd</span><span class="p">())</span> </span><span id="L-383"><a name="L-383"></a> <span class="n">cd</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">directory</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-384"><a name="L-384"></a> </span><span id="L-385"><a name="L-385"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">popd</span><span class="p">():</span> </span><span id="L-386"><a name="L-386"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Change to directory popped off the top of the stack.</span> </span><span id="L-387"><a name="L-387"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; popd()</span> </span><span id="L-388"><a name="L-388"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-389"><a name="L-389"></a> <span class="k">global</span> <span class="n">interactive_dir_stack</span> </span><span id="L-390"><a name="L-390"></a> <span class="k">try</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-391"><a name="L-391"></a> <span class="n">cd</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">interactive_dir_stack</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">])</span> </span><span id="L-392"><a name="L-392"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="n">interactive_dir_stack</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]</span> </span><span id="L-393"><a name="L-393"></a> <span class="k">del</span> <span class="n">interactive_dir_stack</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="o">-</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">]</span> </span><span id="L-394"><a name="L-394"></a> <span class="k">except</span> <span class="ne">IndexError</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-395"><a name="L-395"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Stack is empty&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-396"><a name="L-396"></a> </span><span id="L-397"><a name="L-397"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">syspath</span><span class="p">():</span> </span><span id="L-398"><a name="L-398"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Print the Python path.</span> </span><span id="L-399"><a name="L-399"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; syspath()</span> </span><span id="L-400"><a name="L-400"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-401"><a name="L-401"></a> <span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">sys</span> </span><span id="L-402"><a name="L-402"></a> <span class="n">pprint</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">path</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-403"><a name="L-403"></a> </span><span id="L-404"><a name="L-404"></a><span class="k">def</span> <span class="nf">which</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-405"><a name="L-405"></a> <span class="sd">&quot;&quot;&quot;Print the source file from which a module, class, function, or method</span> </span><span id="L-406"><a name="L-406"></a><span class="sd"> was imported.</span> </span><span id="L-407"><a name="L-407"></a> </span><span id="L-408"><a name="L-408"></a><span class="sd"> Usage: &gt;&gt;&gt; which(mysteryObject)</span> </span><span id="L-409"><a name="L-409"></a><span class="sd"> Returns: Tuple with (file_name, line_number) of source file, or None if</span> </span><span id="L-410"><a name="L-410"></a><span class="sd"> no source file exists</span> </span><span id="L-411"><a name="L-411"></a><span class="sd"> Alias: whence</span> </span><span id="L-412"><a name="L-412"></a><span class="sd"> &quot;&quot;&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-413"><a name="L-413"></a> <span class="n">object_type</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nb">type</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-414"><a name="L-414"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="n">object_type</span> <span class="ow">is</span> <span class="n">types</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ModuleType</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-415"><a name="L-415"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nb">hasattr</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;__file__&#39;</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-416"><a name="L-416"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Module from&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__file__</span> </span><span id="L-417"><a name="L-417"></a> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__file__</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-418"><a name="L-418"></a> <span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-419"><a name="L-419"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Built-in module.&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-420"><a name="L-420"></a> <span class="k">elif</span> <span class="n">object_type</span> <span class="ow">is</span> <span class="n">types</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">ClassType</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-421"><a name="L-421"></a> <span class="k">if</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__module__</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="s1">&#39;__main__&#39;</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-422"><a name="L-422"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Built-in class or class loaded from $PYTHONSTARTUP&#39;</span> </span><span id="L-423"><a name="L-423"></a> <span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-424"><a name="L-424"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Class&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__name__</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;from&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> \ </span><span id="L-425"><a name="L-425"></a> <span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">modules</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__module__</span><span class="p">]</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__file__</span> </span><span id="L-426"><a name="L-426"></a> <span class="c1"># Send you to the first line of the __init__ method</span> </span><span id="L-427"><a name="L-427"></a> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">modules</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__module__</span><span class="p">]</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__file__</span><span class="p">,</span> </span><span id="L-428"><a name="L-428"></a> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__init__</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">im_func</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">func_code</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">co_firstlineno</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-429"><a name="L-429"></a> <span class="k">elif</span> <span class="n">object_type</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">types</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">BuiltinFunctionType</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">types</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">BuiltinMethodType</span><span class="p">):</span> </span><span id="L-430"><a name="L-430"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s2">&quot;Built-in or extension function/method.&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-431"><a name="L-431"></a> <span class="k">elif</span> <span class="n">object_type</span> <span class="ow">is</span> <span class="n">types</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">FunctionType</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-432"><a name="L-432"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Function from&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">func_code</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">co_filename</span> </span><span id="L-433"><a name="L-433"></a> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">func_code</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">co_filename</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">func_code</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">co_firstlineno</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-434"><a name="L-434"></a> <span class="k">elif</span> <span class="n">object_type</span> <span class="ow">is</span> <span class="n">types</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">MethodType</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-435"><a name="L-435"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Method of class&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">im_class</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__name__</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;from&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> </span><span id="L-436"><a name="L-436"></a> <span class="n">fname</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">sys</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">modules</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">im_class</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__module__</span><span class="p">]</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">__file__</span> </span><span id="L-437"><a name="L-437"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="n">fname</span> </span><span id="L-438"><a name="L-438"></a> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">fname</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">object</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">im_func</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">func_code</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="n">co_firstlineno</span><span class="p">)</span> </span><span id="L-439"><a name="L-439"></a> <span class="k">else</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-440"><a name="L-440"></a> <span class="k">print</span> <span class="s2">&quot;argument is not a module or function.&quot;</span> </span><span id="L-441"><a name="L-441"></a> <span class="k">return</span> <span class="bp">None</span> </span><span id="L-442"><a name="L-442"></a><span class="n">whence</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">which</span> </span><span id="L-443"><a name="L-443"></a> </span><span id="L-444"><a name="L-444"></a><span class="c1"># Automatically add some convenience functions to __builtin__</span> </span><span id="L-445"><a name="L-445"></a><span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">__builtin__</span> </span><span id="L-446"><a name="L-446"></a><span class="k">for</span> <span class="n">n</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="n">autobuiltins</span><span class="p">:</span> </span><span id="L-447"><a name="L-447"></a> <span class="k">exec</span> <span class="s1">&#39;__builtin__.__dict__[&quot;</span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s1">&quot;] = </span><span class="si">%s</span><span class="s1">&#39;</span> <span class="o">%</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">n</span><span class="p">,</span><span class="n">n</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="ow">in</span> <span class="nb">globals</span><span class="p">()</span> </span></pre></div> </td></tr></table>
python